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BIOS 251




Jan 9, 2024





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Samantha Stewart Date: 06/02/2023 Case Study: Tissue Stratum Corneum is the layer that helps our skin resist water absorption. It is also where you can find dead skin cells. Stratum Lucidum is only found in the thicker parts of skin like your hands, and feet. Stratum Granulosum is 2-5 layers of cells that contains partial creation of keratin. Stratum Spinosum is the layer of the skin that provides strength. Stratum Basale oversees skin pigmentation. It contains the melanin found in our skin. It is also the site of most cell division known as mitosis. A cell junction is how one cell, and another are held together. There are 4 different types. Tight junction form circles around an epithelial cells and links it securely to the cells next to them. Desmosomes act as an adhesive between two cells. Unlike a tight junction, they are not able to prevent substances from passing around them, but they keep cells from breaking apart. Hemidesmosomes are like desmosomes, but they are smaller and form a bond between basal cells. Gap junctions are channels that form connections between the cytoplasm of two cells. This authorizes signals between both cells. The plakophilin gene, also known as the PKP2 gene, gives direction for making a protein. That protein is called plakophilin 2. It is one of the many proteins that make up desmosomes. The PKP2 gene is mostly found in the myocardium. Mutations that occur in the plakophilin gene disturb the cell-to-cell interactions. When mutated, the gene is unable to function, which leads to connection issues between cells. Hyperhidrosis is ectodermal dysplasia. It causes excessive sweating. Mutation in the plakophilin gene would lead to desmosome development being lost. In result, a person is diagnosed with hyperhidrosis. References: Saladin, K. S. (2020). Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function (9th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education (US). MedlinePlus [Internet]. (2022). Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). %20instructions,make%20up%20structures%20called%20desmosomes . Yousef, H. et al. (2022). Anatomy, Skin (Integument), Epidermis.