bio 145 lab 4



Rio Salado Community College *

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Dec 6, 2023





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#1. What units of measurement are used to describe wavelengths? The units of measure used to describe wavelengths are in nanometers which comes out to be 1 nm = 1 billionth of a meter. #2. What range of wavelengths of light are absorbed by photosynthetic organisms? The range of wavelengths of light that are absorbed through photosynthetic organisms are anywhere between approximately 380 and 750 nanometers. Wavelengths also can vary in color. #3. Which is higher in energy, photons traveling in 700 nm wavelengths or photons traveling in 500 nm wavelengths? Wavelengths of visible light can range anywhere from 400-700nm which means protons traveling in 500nm have a higher energy than protons traveling at 700nm. #4. Why does chlorophyll look green? Chlorophyll looks green because it does not absorb green wavelengths from white light. Chlorophyll absorbs mostly blue and red light which leaves behind the rest of the spectrums which leaves the green. Additionally, chlorophyll is used in plants to absorb solar energy to photosynthesis. Chlorophyll also reflects wavelengths that are approximately 510nm that appear green in color. #5. Other than the visible spectrum, list two additional forms of radiant energy found on the electromagnetic spectrum. Other than visible spectrum, two additional forms of radiant energy found on electromagnetic spectrums are infrared and gamma rays. Both radiant energy forms are undetectable without specialized equipment. #6. Photosynthesis process: a. Which 3 things does a photosynthetic organism require in order to perform photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is an operation that allows organisms to create their own nutrients. The process of photosynthesis requires solar energy, carbon dioxide, and water. b. What two final products does photosynthesis produce? Two final products that photosynthesis produce are glucose carbohydrates and oxygen gas. c. Why are each of the final products of photosynthesis important to other living
things (those that are not photosynthetic)? As primary producers, photosynthetic organisms make their own food and are the basis of life in any ecosystem. These organisms are important because they can change inorganic low energy carbon molecules into high energy organic carbon molecules which others use as food. Photosynthetic organisms may pass their energy through ecosystems which is demonstrated by food chains and food webs. #7. In which organelle does photosynthesis occur within eukaryotic cells? The organelle that occurs within the eukaryotic cells during photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast which contains the light absorbing pigment called chlorophyll. #8. Light-dependent reactions: a. Where, specifically, do the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur? Light dependent reactions occur in the thylakoids and thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts. b. What are two products of the light-dependent reactions? Two products of the light dependent reactions are ATP and O2. When there is a light dependent reaction, sunlight is converted into chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate commonly known as ATP which is responsible for energy storage. Another reaction is when water molecules split, and oxygen gas is released back into the environment. #9. Light-independent reactions: a. Where, specifically, do the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis occur? Light independent reactions occur in the stroma of chloroplasts. b. What is the product of the light-independent reactions? The product of light independent reactions is glucose and other carbohydrates that are synthesized during the reaction process. #10. Identify (by name) the four pigments involved in photosynthesis which are discussed in the lab. List which colors of light wavelengths are reflected by each photosynthetic pigment. a. Carotene: Reflects red-orange light wavelengths. b. Xanthophyll: Reflects red-yellow light wavelengths. c. Chlorophyll a: Reflects green light wavelengths. d. Chlorophyll b: Reflects green light wavelengths.
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