Plato and Aristotle_ Crash Course History of Science #3 Notes



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Feb 20, 2024





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Post a Bb-style question, your answer, and an explanation. Things to think about: What was important to the Greeks as a group? Who might dissent from these values? Why did Plato and Aristotle have different priorities and values in their work? Review your classmates' questions. Choose one to rewrite and improve. Make sure you write out the new question. Explain why it needed to be improved and how your rewrite helped. Remember that no more than 2 people can respond to any one person with a rewrite. While Plato’s overall thinking may have been flawed, he inspired future scientists to think about laws within nature. Using the Crash Course video, which one of these statements would he have least agreed with? A. We live in an orderly universe B. Scientific findings should be based on observation above all C. Scientific findings should be based around what we know to be true D. Science can provide opinions The correct answer is B, scientific findings should be based on observation above all. This school of thought would be best associated with Aristotle, who believed that scientific knowledge should be based on observation and evidence. Plato highly valued order, and looked for findings that matched his opinions of the universe. This is a good question because it requires students to critically evaluate the beliefs of both Plato and Aristotle. It requires an understanding of both of their teachings. Plato and Aristotle: Crash Course History of Science #3 Notes 2 things he did- asked questions and inspired Plato and Aristotle Socratic method- negative hypothesis elimination Plato made the academy! Wow Let no one enter here who is ignorant of geometry Geometry in nature- rules Plato- philosopher v scientist idealist Aristotle- based on evidence, heart of scientific practice Scientists as servants to warlords? Interesting Aristotle merged the idea of the elements and the heavens- a complete system
PLATO VS ARISTOTLE Plato- cosmos was perfect, rules that could be studied, geometric, giant dnd dice. The cosmos is orderly (plato was a wee bit delusional) Aristotle- abstract, makes sense of observations, ether (hot cold dry wet). All elements are trying to get back to their natural state Aristotle recognized that elements didn't always exist in their pure forms EVERYTHING IS ALWAYS TRYING TO RETURN TO ITS TRUE ORDER Knowledge proceeded from the experience of the senses The three categories of the soul with the senses incorporated Plato inspired scholars to think about laws
ROMAN ENGINEERING NOTES Write a Bb-style question on Roman engineering. Include your answer and an explanation. Romans baller at engineering Did they understand why these things worked? Is understanding in doing or explaining the concepts behind Romans knowledge from greeks museum= research university Library of alexandria Architects originally for war machines Archimedes Science was abstract and perfect, architecture and engineering were necessary and practical (just not for me) didn't need to understand, just do Useful or theoretical knowledge Epistemic Claudius Ptolemy- epistemic questions Hypatia of Alexandria!!!! MY GIRL Aqueducts Roman highways- logistics The coliseum- HUGE feat of engineering Q: The Crash Course video outlines the difference between useful and theoretical knowledge, or techne and episteme. Upon which of these ideas was Roman engineering based? A: Roman engineering was based on techne, or useful knowledge. Romans were practical in their knowledge, and I would argue they believed that the understanding was in doing, not explaining or theorizing. I believe this is a good, multilayered question because it requires the student to understand the difference between useful and theoretical knowledge, and to explain which of these principles influenced Roman technology and infrastructure. HOW ROME FORGED AN EMPIRE NOTES Post to the discussion board a Bb -style test question, your answer, and your explanation why it is a good question. Note that questions that only address concepts introduced in the first few minutes will not get full credit. Prove to me that you watched the whole thing. (Or trip up students who didn't!)
Some things to think about: What was Rome's most significant innovation/project that helped establish them as one of the most powerful civilizations in history? Did the societal and cultural benefit of building public works (such as the Forum and Colosseum) justify the expense? A video is different from reading a textbook or a primary source. How does this format change your learning? Respond to your classmates. How did the leadership of Ceaser differ from Hain? How did that impact the use of technology in Rome? Caesar Augustus Claudius- water supply Nero Vespasian- coliseum Titus nerva Trajan Hadrian Nero v Vespasian Q. How did Roman leadership spanning from Vespasian to Trajan change the use of technology and infrastructure A. After the horrific and wasteful reign of Nero, Vespasian (an every man), built the coliseum as a testament to Rome’s architectural prowess and cultural superiority. This line of thinking was continued through Titus, Nerva, and eventually Trajan of Spain. Trajan built the Forum of Trajan, a massive complex of buildings which served as the center of all political endeavors. The forum was also home to a massive “shopping mall” of sorts. The architect responsible for this was a Greek named Apollodorus of Damascus. This is significant because, for the first time, two non Romans were responsible for Roman development and advancement. Vespasian and Trajan took two completely different approaches with the same end goal in mind, celebrating Rome. However, I think it’s worth noting that Vespasian probably built something to appeal to the masses in response to Nero’s reign of terror. The people needed to be able to trust their emperor again before something like Trajan’s Forum could be attempted. Post Nero, this likely would have been received poorly. I think this is a good question because it is so open ended. It allows students the chance to creatively answer the prompt while providing as much detail as they like. HIPPOCRATIC OATH NOTES AND WORK Q. What similarities do you notice between the source text and the hippocratic oath that today’s doctors swear? Are there any?
A. The oath asks physicians to serve patients to the best of their ability, much like in today’s practice. The oath also asks that physicians uphold something similar to modern day doctor patient confidentiality. Additionally, there is an overarching theme of “do no harm” which is the cornerstone of doctors’ practice today. I believe this is a good question because it asks students to draw comparisons between the source text of the hippocratic oath and the modern day version of it. This enables students to put the text in “real life” context and develop a greater connection and interest in the topic. Post to the discussion board a Bb-style test question that brings Merton into dialog with Hippocrates. Also include your answer and your explanation why it is a good question. This discussion post should up the game in how you think about creating exam questions. You are not just asking students to recall information, but rather, you want them to draw conclusions and synthesize information. Your goal going forward is to ask complex questions. Some things to think about: Is the Hippocratic Oath a set of norms? What are the differences between Mertonian norms and the Hippocratic Oath? Where do you see different values? Why are the values different in each? Do medicine and science have different values? Today? In ancient Greece? Why would this be the case? What are the specific differences in norms from ancient Greece to the 1950s when Merton outlined his ideas? What are the sources of the differences? I swear by Apollo the physician, and Asclepius, and Hygieia and Panacea and all the gods and goddesses as my witnesses, that, according to my ability and judgement, I will keep this Oath and this contract: To hold him who taught me this art equally dear to me as my parents, to be a partner in life with him, and to fulfill his needs when required; to look upon his offspring as equals to my own siblings, and to teach them this art, if they shall wish to learn it, without fee or contract; and that by the set rules, lectures, and every other mode of instruction, I will impart a knowledge of the art to my own sons, and those of my teachers, and to students bound by this contract and having sworn this Oath to the law of medicine, but to no others. I will use those dietary regimens which will benefit my patients according to my greatest ability and judgement, and I will do no harm or injustice to them. I will not give a lethal drug to anyone if I am asked, nor will I advise such a plan; and similarly I will not give a woman a pessary to cause an abortion. In purity and according to divine law will I carry out my life and my art.
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