Guided Notes for Topics 6



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Electrical Engineering


Feb 20, 2024





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NAME: ___________________________________ PERIOD: _____ DATE: ________ APES 2324 – Guided Notes 6.6 Nuclear Power 1. Sketch a diagram of a nuclear reactor and label all parts. Moderator Rod Fuel Rod Control Rod Steel chamber Concrete chamber 2. According to the Slide Set, explain how electrical generation by nuclear power similar to that with fossil fuels. Both nuclear power and fossil fuels are non renewable sources since their primary fuel source is uranium and fossilized organic matter. The environmental and economic challenges associated with their extraction, production, and waste management highlight the need for transitioning to more sustainable and renewable energy sources. 3. Describe the role of fuel rods in nuclear powered electrical generation. Fuel rods play a crucial role in nuclear powered electrical generation. Nuclear reactors use a process called nuclear fission to produce heat which produces steam and then drives turbines to generate electricity. 4. Describe the role of control rods in nuclear powered electrical generation. Control rods in a nuclear power plant provide a means of regulating and controlling the nuclear reactions within the reactor core. Their strategic insertion or withdrawl helps manage reactor power, stabilize temperatures, facilitate shutdowns, and contribute to the safety of nuclear powered electrical generation. 5. Explain why nuclear power plants (for electrical generation) are always located near large bodies of water. Nuclear reactors generate a significant amount of heat through the process of nuclear fission. This heat must be removed to maintain safe operating temperatures. Water is used for this purpose since it is an excellent coolant. Generator Turbine Heat exchanger Condenser
NAME: ___________________________________ PERIOD: _____ DATE: ________ 6. Describe the role of cooling towers in nuclear powered electrical generation. Cooling towers play a big role by providing a means to dissipate excess heat from the reactor and associated systems. They are useful in locations where access to large bodies is limited. 7. Describe two advantages of nuclear power. One significant advantage is its ability to generate electricity with low greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear energy has an exceptionally high energy density. 8. Describe four disadvantages of nuclear power. One of the most significant challenges of nuclear power is the generation of radioactive waste during the nuclear fission process. This waste remains hazardous for thousands of years and requires secure, long-term storage solutions. Nuclear accidents, though rare, can have severe consequences. Events like the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011 highlighted the potential for catastrophic accidents in nuclear power plants. The spread of nuclear technology poses risks of nuclear proliferation, where countries or entities could use nuclear materials or technology for military purposes. The construction of nuclear power plants involves substantial upfront costs and long planning and construction periods. The complexity of nuclear technology, stringent safety regulations, and public opposition can contribute to delays and cost overruns. 9. Identify how many nuclear power plants are operational in the US. There are 56 operational power plants in the United States. 10. Identify the names and locations of nuclear power plants in Florida. There is one called Crystal River Coal and Nuclear Power Plant located at 15485 W Power Line St, Crystal River, FL. The second one is the St. Lucie Nuclear Power Plant located at 6501 S Ocean Dr, Jensen Beach, FL, 24957 11. Assume that you have 180g of a radioactive substance. This substance has a pH of 7.2, temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, a half-life of 265 years, and a density of 19.05 g/cm3. After 1,325 years, calculate what mass remains of the radioactive substance. N = 180g x (1/2)^(1325/265) N = 180g x (1/2)^5 N = 180 g x 1/32 N = 5.625 g
NAME: ___________________________________ PERIOD: _____ DATE: ________ 12. Identify and describe one letter in the diagram that is common to both nuclear and fossil fuel electricity production. C 13. Identify and describe one letter in the diagram that is found ONLY in nuclear power plants. D 14. Describe what happened in each of the 3 major nuclear accidents. The TMI accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania. It was caused by a combination of mechanical failure as well as human error. The Chernobyl disaster is considered the worst nuclear accident. The accident was caused by a combination of design flaws and human errors. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident was triggered by a massive earthquake and tsunami that led to a loss of power and cooling systems at the plant. This resulted in multiple reactor meltdowns. 15. A number of US electric companies have filed applications with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for permits to build new nuclear power plants to meet future electricity demand. A) Describe one environmental benefit of generating electricity from nuclear energy rather than coal or natural gas. One environmental benefit is the significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions.
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